Media (Il)literacies Week 11

The first thing that I learned from this class and will use the skills beyond the class was the knowledge from what memes are and the cultural meaning incorporated in them. Week 4 taught me how language is broken down in short ironic words and tied in with a picture that correlates to what is being said. We are able to participate by recreating these memes into our own. When I was creating my memes for the assignment, I had to find a topic that people were talking about at the time and can incorporate into a recycled image that is being used on the Internet. Once my meme was made, I knew that people across the world will look at my meme and might understand what the meaning is. Week 4 will help provide a better understanding of memes and maybe create my own on the free time.

The second thing that I learned from this class was Week 6 on participation and Youtube. That topic might have been the most interesting because the professor was able to tie Youtube into how people participate on the Web. Understanding how these platforms were always interesting because each story is always different. We knew about how Facebook was created if you saw the film, so reading about how Youtube was created was interesting. Youtube itself is created to create, sort, judge and censor content. All of these experiences and interests are created a video for everyone to see, which is why Youtube is the mainframe for produsers. So whether or not people participate on Youtube is interesting to debate because how can consider watching a video participation.

The final thing that I learned from this class was Week 7 that focused on Twitter. I knew a lot Twitter about what it does and how people are connected, but learning about the history of Twitter made me understand Twitter critically. Understanding how people micro blog and this new way of interaction are important, but the public themselves is important because that is where ideas come from. Having Twitter will help me connect to new people and ideas that I have not heard of. It can also be used for finding companies you want to work for and can help connect with their employees.

In conclusion, this course has provided me information that I could not imagine knowing on my own. Being able to understanding our social world can be accomplished by understanding the history of it and critically look at the impact it has to our world.

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Digital Inequalities Week 10

My thoughts on digital inequalities are a growing concern because people will be able to technology and become digitally ‘savvy’, but others might not be left behind. Although studies suggest that young adults are not considered to be technologically ‘savvy’ just because they have the technology and grew up with it while others do not have that same luxury, they have the power to use it.

One of the examples that digital inequalities is affecting is our education and Henry Jenkins (2013) points out “digital media also threaten to exacerbate growing inequalities in education. Progressive digital media users…are a privileged minority. There is also a growing gap between the progressive use of digital media outside of the classroom, and the no-frills offerings of most public schools that educate our most vulnerable populations” (Jenkins, H. 2013). It shows that people who are excluded from these practices might not develop the skills to someone who has technology. Children might not have that same passion and commitment in pursuing their dreams without technology. When exposed to seeing technology on the television screens, more kids would want to have it, and the results are showing up today.

Rosenberg critiques Danah boyd on the battle between Myspace and Facebook, which shows the representations of the divide in our society. Rosenberg writes “According to boyd, Facebook’s clean interface and Ivy League origins have made it home for the collegiate set, where Myspace’s anarchies graphics and pop-music focus orient it more forward “alternative” kids, minorities, dropouts and outcasts” (Rosenberg, S. 2007). This comparison is basic bullying to me. Facebook is the high school jock and Myspace might be the nerd, or the international student. Anything can apply to what is considered “alternative” because they do not meet up to the elite standard. What makes it hard today kids, especially the unprivileged is the division in their online interaction. To find out who they are as a person is a challenge today because they are exposed to subgroups and could affect their decision making.

This is a concern, especially towards children because they can be exposed to cyber-bullying. It gives bullies an easier way to bully kids and expose them on a wider scale. Rather than effect kids now physically, it can mentally effect their state of mind, which can result to suicide. One example being Amanda Todd, who was cyber bullied for expressing herself online, and was bullied to the point of suicide.

An example that might amplify social divisions is through ethnic backgrounds. Society has been used to racism now, but online activity amplifies it because it’s not censored. Recently, there was a Youtube video in Buffalo of a white middle aged women swearing and screaming racist remarks against a black men in his truck recording the whole thing, and it escalated to the point that cops almost got involved. This happens on all social media platforms as well but not as lethal to this example.

One of the ways Hargittai and Boyd’s findings can reinforce or challenge inequalities are the people who might be shy in a classroom. Having an online class now can help these kids who struggle to express themselves in the classroom. Another way these findings can help inequalities is information. Having an online world can challenge inequalities in our justice system and will find the truth we need.

As mentioned earlier, racism is seen more often on the online world and happens more often now, it can be treated now correctly. “By increasing the visibility of individuals and their actions, social media doesn’t simply shine a spotlight on the problemactic actions; it enables people to identify and harass others in a very public way. Thus in turn, reinforces social divisions that plague American society”. (Boyd, D. 2014, p.163).

In conclusion, digital inequalities will continue to exist unless we find ways to challenge social divisions. Some can be handled with but others still exist and continue to threat the way we live. Both articles do provide findings that can be used to show the effects of the online world to us and creates a spotlight on the issues that have existed now for decades. I feel as though that if we educate our kids properly, it can help go a long way in these inequalities.

Reference
Boyd, D. (2014) “ Inequality: Can Social Media Resolve Social Divisions? ” It’s
complicated: The social lives of networked teens. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2014. 153-175.

Jenkins, H. (2013) What’s all the fuss about connected learning? Confessions of an Aca-fan.
The official weblog of Henry Jenkins. Retrieved on July 9th, 2014 from http://henryjenkins.org/2013/01/whats-all-the-fuss-about-connected-learning.html

Rosenberg, S (2007) The Facebook/Myspace class war. The Wordyard project.
Retrieved on July 9th, 2014 from http://www.wordyard.com/2007/06/28/facebook-myspace/

Assignment Part 4

Part A

The way the user control digital tools and platforms to critically think about our contemporary digital environment is by challenging dominant ideologies that elites have created to be called the ‘norm’. Each video from McIntosh’s piece on “A history of Subversive remix video before Youtube”, demonstrate approaches artists would take to remix different media pieces to creating a message. What I found interesting are what each artist was challenging in our society today. A lot of the videos showed artists critiquing political norms that revolved around war and terrorism, capitalism and the reputation of a political leader. Other artists focused on gender norms and the roles of men and women in society that revolves around both heterosexuality and homosexuality. Artists also critique ethnic backgrounds that are believed to be the minority, while the ‘white’ are seen as the supreme to all beings.

There were two examples that I felt the artists really challenged the dominant ideologies in how society is today. “The Iraq Campaign 1991: A Television History” (excerpt) by Phil Patiris (1991) exploited how the United States are shown in the Iraq War campaign. The use of oil throughout the video demonstrates the USA is there just to retrieve oil for their people. The clips demonstrated that oil is a life or death resource for countries that get themselves involved in oil. The use of Star Trek clips portrays people dying f just from the natural causes of the resources. People also die trying to preserve it for their own country and try to keep it away from the USA. The end showed a family having a good family represent the typical American family in 1991 that are living in peace knowing that the USA will always be protected and do not have to live in fear and violence, while other countries around the world suffer because they are not the USA.

The second video “Perhaps Perhaps Perhaps” by Killa (2005) is an alternative perspective of the relationship between Captain Kirk and Spock on Star Trek. The artist portrayed this relationship to show a more romantic to not only target to subgroup that enjoy watching Star Trek, but to critique on the heterosexual portrayal that society is used to in shows and to promote homosexuality from gays and lesbians. It would be wrong if these two characters were seen as homosexuals for people in society when the showed aired, so developing a message that actors on screen can be portrayed as homosexuals and are accepted in society is the message the artist was promoting. The use of the song ‘perhaps perhaps perhaps’ demonstrates what would it be like if they did have that type of romance in a television show and what lengths would these characters show their affection.

One of the ways emerging/ social media tools can help critique older tools and platforms is to have clips from older media platforms within a subversive video. Throughout many of the videos that McIntosh showed are television clips from CNN, FOX, ABC because these media conglomerates are controlling the message to the public. Their view on society is always political and never about what is best for the people, rather what is best for the country. When you see these remix videos, they subdue issues that should be concerning to people and focus on issues that is created by politics to get the media talking.

These videos are hard to determine any change in dominant norms in society because these subversive videos are innocent. They do not really cause a threat to making changes to ideologies we are accustomed to, but they provide awareness of them. Also these videos are perspectives made by one person, and many individuals in society might not agree to the message they are sending and will tune them out. Youtube can provide to raising awareness of issue we have not heard of, but does not necessary critique about what the real issue is. For example, the KONY2012 video became a viral hit and created that awareness, but the cause was limited by the actual message of the video. Although Youtube can raise awareness of our way of what we participate in, how can you define participation in the digital environment?

Part B The Six Youtube clips

Part B

Video 1

99 Problems (Explicit Political Remix)

This video has explicit language that should not be repeated, but it does provide an interesting perspective about politics in the United States and on President Barack Obama. The reason this video supports Part A because it challenges our politics are now seen today. The United States has never had a black president and that is a different direction for the country. It does not always have to be having a white president for the US. It shows that you do not need a platform such as Youtube to change our perspective on politics.

The platform did not entirely critique how politics is seen, but raises awareness about what people can do about it. Although this is a positive outlook on ethnicity in the United States, there is negative discrimination Obama faces in the video. He will always be tied to the black population as how it is depicted as ‘gangster’ like. Although I might not think that way, it will still be part of how that community is shown.

Video 2

Read my lips Gaddafi and Berlusconi- by Johan Soderberg (2011)

A comical subversive video remix that shows Gaddafi and Berlusconi singing ‘Should I stay or should I go now’ by The Clash. Although it’s short, it gets to the point of how these politicians are. I am not that familiar with Berlusconi, but I am familiar with Gaddafi because he was shown all the time on CNN and what he did to his people. This one is different to me because it does not focus on US politics entirely since this was a Libyan politician and was later assassinated. The media made it believe that it was targeting the US because they would always use the term ‘terrorist’ in describing people in the Middle East and how the US would be affected. The video also pokes fun at the relationship Gaddafi and Berlusconi had and the amount of terror they did to their people. It critiques how people saw them, not by the actions that they did. I do not know what either people did, but they are characterized as bad because CNN said they were. I do not know their motives to what they do in their country, but it obviously is not seen as the norm according to CNN.

Video 3

State of the Union- by Bryan Boyce

The use of George W. Bush as the sun and Teletubbies to portray our world is rather strange, but it shows what our world was like when Bush was president. The video showed what Bush was to people a greedy self-centred president who really loved his oil. The use of his rays destroying the world showed how people thought of him and how his impact has changed the way people have lived. The way the artist showed George W. Bush might be painful to watch because he blew up rabbits, but that is what this artist thought he essentially did during his presidency. There was never a time where he wanted to protect our environment from harmful effects of drilling oil from our Earth. The fact that the sun was originally a baby and having George W. Bush as the sun could say that many saw people George W. Bush as a baby too.

Video 4

Everything is a remix: the matrix

The video shows the portrayal of the movie The Matrix and throughout the many clips, it somehow has a way to tie into clips from various movies that have already happened. On paper it looks pretty accurate that many clips from the Matrix are recreated from various clips, but my intent is to focus on politics in general. The message trying to be sent here is that although we hear politicians making a great speech and providing promises to their people, politicians before them have made that same promise, and most of the time it never works out. Rather than using recycled images to something new, people should try to be more innovative in how they participate. A quote by Stewart Stern says “any film is at the same time an expression of a writer and it’s an offering to an audience to create their own film” (Kreisinger, E., 2012). When you see film that does not show this, you get what The Matrix had. Although we never recognized these similarities between The Matrix to other films, that is the same with politics today.

Video 5

Mickey Mouse Discovers the Government Cartoon Conspiracy against Glenn Beck

Who doesn’t love Mickey Mouse honestly? In this clip we see Mickey and Pluto hearing the radio about the news of cartoons being part of a conspiracy and how they are governmentally funded. Although this was a remix, it made it seem as though Mickey was in a state of panic by what was heard on the radio. Glenn Beck, the person who spoke on the radio praised the artist who created this remixed video. “That remixed response- which built on my video to further the conversation- was ultimately much more a badge of honor me” (henryjenkins.org, 2010). It seems as though people are creating these videos because they voicing their opinion.

Henry Jenkins (2010) writes “ from my point of view it seems clear that vidding is not only an integral part of remix history but vidding practice can also teach political remixers an enormous amount on a wide range of practices and techniques” (henryjenkins.org, 2010). Although this was a short video clip and does not challenge any dominant ideologies, it does provide artists a different perspective on politics.

Video 6

State of the Union (2014 Political Remix video)

The video challenges what Obama has done while he has been president. Based on how the artist remixed the words to make it seems as though his presidency so far has been bad. Many people have questioned the decisions he have made such as Obamacare. I am not sure if that will exist when his term is over, but it’s a tossup on what they will do with it.

Other issues have arisen since his presidency. Jenkins (2010) writes “ political remix video can be a blunt tool that uses ridicule as a way to expose hypocrisy, illuminate tropes, and talk back to power- but it is a little larder to use the form in more subtle ways” (henryjenkins.org, 2010). Essentially the message is Obama screwed over the country. This opinion might not be agreed with by everyone, it’s an opinion and everyone is allowed to have one.

Reference
Jenkins, H. (2010) DIY Video 2010: Political Remix (Part three). Confessionsof an Aca-fan. The official
weblog of Henry Jenkins. November 10th, 2010. Retrieved July 6th, 2014 from http://henryjenkins.org/2010/11/diy_video_2010_political_remix_1.html
Kreisinger, E. (2012) Subversive & Political Remix Videos. Spotlight:EliseKreisinger, Pop Culture
Pirate. Retrieved July 5th, 2014 from http://politicalremix.tumblr.com/

Inclusionists vs deletionists. Week 9 Wikipedia

The readings this week outline a split amongst Wikipedians, between exclusionists and inclusionists. In 500-750 words, explain which side of the debate you are aligned with and why. Again, there isn’t a right or wrong answer. A well-formulated answer incorporates course material but offers more than a summation. We want to know what you’re thinking and how you’re thinking about the material. If you need a refresher on blog responses, please see ‘Blog Responses’ in the main menu.

These two philosophies challenge how we read and understand the information that we collect. Some people want the simplest answer with standards that block out information that is not considered important. Others want the facts that we might not have learned yet and has fewer restrictions on the information provided. Deletionists (or exclusionists) and inclusionists are the two philosophies that Carr provides in his article. Both have different understanding of Wikipedia and how its used. “To the inclusionists, Wikipedia is in essence a wiki. It’s an example of an entirely new form for collecting knowledge, a form unbound by the practices of the past. To the deletionists, Wikipedia is in essence an encyclopedia. It’s an example of an established form for collecting knowledge (albeit with a new production and distribution model), with traditions that deserve respect” (Carr, N., 2011, p.198). Deletionists believe in traditional aspects of collecting information, while inclusionists is a new way of collecting information.

Either side could be right based on how you argue this. For me though, the side that I believe in the most is the inclusionists. Rather than focus on Wikipedia to how they collect information, my focus will be on a broader scope and how I collect information in general. The reason is Wikipedia has become a part of my life in how I understand articles, what the stories are, what the outcomes were. The way I research is to have all the information I need that is related to what I am looking for. For example, I love sports, particularly what my favourite team does during the time they are not playing. Whenever I hear stories of a player on my favourite team getting traded or released, I have to search up all the stories that are related to it. I have to know all the information about it even though they may or may not be true, because it’s a different perspective I never thought about. Although with Wikipedia when you search on a particular story or person and only provides you one perspective, it does make you want to look at different perspectives via Google. It is just my way of thinking about stories that go on everyday in my life.

We must remember that Wikipedia is on the Internet, which provides a tonne of information for us to view and collect. When I was younger, I did have encyclopedia books that I would look at and software versions of merrian-webster on my dad’s desktop computer. The difference between a print encyclopedia to an online version might just be that they are on different mediums. People can argue that Wikipedia is a form of deletionist philosophy because the people who control it might censor out information that might not included in your search. To me, the medium itself influences on how I collect information today.

As a person growing up with encycopedias in my home and now being able to search on the web, another difference is how they are structured. Wikipedia seems more loosely based, while encyclopedia like the print ones are very structured, which is why I felt that Wikipedia is more inclusionist.

“Notability is not inherited” (Levinson, P., 2013, p. 68). Although both take on this particular stance that if the information is verifiable, that is should be considered part of the article, with the increased usage of the Internet and information being created and circulated, my stance of these two philosophies is for inclusionist.

Reference
Carr, Nicholas. “ Questioning Wikipedia .” Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader. Ed. Geert Lovink and Nathaniel Tkacz. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 2011. P.198
Levinson, Paul. “Chapter 5: Wikipedia.” New New Media. 2nd ed. Toronto: Penguin Academics, 2013. P. 68

Creative Assignment Part 2- Pinterest Board

This board is about the power of e-waste. Each pin provides the causes of allowing e-waste to continue on our planet. Statistics from these pins show the effects it can have and what the people in places such as Ghana, China are going through. We must change because if we do not, our whole planet will be trashed.

I hope you enjoy my board. it my first time doing one. Although it was a bit of a challenge at first, I believe it turned out nicely

Creative Assignment 3- Personal Reflection and Pinterest board Part 1

Personal Reflection

The devices that I use each and every day are my cellphone, laptop, iPod touch and Xbox 360. These devices were gifts I received from the family. The cellphone I received was a birthday gift from my parents. With my contract ending a couple weeks after my birthday, my mom treated me out to Rogers and let me picked out the phone that I wanted and chose the HTC one mini. The laptop was a gift in either the 9th or 10th grade and for my birthday. My ipod touch was a Christmas gift from my parents as well the Xbox 360.Image

 

The cellphone has been the device that has received the most updating and could because I use it the most. Since 2010, I have gone through 4 cellphones. My first cellphone which was a hand me down cellphone that I received from my sister, did not last long as soon as I got it. Then I went through two blackberries from 2011 to 2014 and then upgraded my phone to the HTC one mini. What is cool about the cellphone that I have now is it updates on its own. There will be times where the cellphone updates on 3 or 4 apps that I have. The other devices I have used have not been updated like the cellphone.

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Before I had a laptop, I was using my dad’s home computer. Like any computer roughly 10 years ago, it had the huge monitor, the big rectangular cd rom and the keyboard. Much time was spent on that computer and enjoyed every second of it. Although it was a good computer, it began to show signs of age. The speed on the computer began to slow down and now it sits there collecting dust.

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The main reason for changing these devices is they started to break down easily. My second blackberry began falling apart during the third year I had it. The battery life would be 10 minutes and then shuts off. The adapter on the side was broken, and some of the keys did not work. The phone was a mess. Some of this you cannot control, which is why I had to make a change. The laptop I have right now is in good shape, but it can be updated as well. It does not recharge properly anymore and the physical feature of the laptop is diminishing.    

 

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This might be strange, but the cellphones that I am no longer using my mom have kept it in her room. She feels that keeping these cellphones might come in an importance for me if I ever needed them. Not sure what the logic is, but it does no harm to just keeping them. The same can be said to the other devices I have used. Some of my older game consoles such as the ps1, gamecube, and gameboy devices are stored away. I figured that if I spent a lot of money at the time when those devices were trending, why not keep them? And the cellphones that I used to have are in my mom’s room.

The social impact that these devices had on me were huge. It was part of my childhood growing up and provided an enjoyment that I could never have back. Obviously the bigger question is how these devices effect the global environment. Although these devices are stored in my house, just having them here makes a big difference. The discussion on e-waste brought up a lot attention as to how much we are throwing away and how it effects the nature of the world. Throwing devices away is as bad as throwing our garbage away. The effect it can have on our environment affects the way people live. People should realize that we are starting to throw out our technology devices faster because new devices keep coming out. The way we consume our technology is harmful to not only the environment, but ourselves. We are accustomed to buying the latest thing, and affect our way of living. People have to power to cause the problem, we can also fix it.

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Creative Assignment 2- Deconstruct/construct meme

   

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 Part 1

Why did you choose this meme?

The reason I chose this meme because of the irony involved. This meme is hilarious because it pokes fun of people on Instagram. Usually women tend to pose on Instagram. The way I see it, many girls on Instagram create a seductive image to earn likes from their friends. The constant recycling of the same poses done by different girls (ex. selfies, duck face) is annoying. This is why I chose this meme.

How does your understanding of the meme position you as a reader within a larger community? What is this community?

It positions me as someone who feels that people who get infront of the camera are overconfident. That personally does not show who you are. Someone who needs personal attention should definitely use Instagram to boost their self-confidence. When I use Instagram, I try to take pictures whenever I am with my friends, or food. Yes I do take a photo of myself sometimes, but I try to be creative.

What does the meme mean?

Meme usually are considered ‘inside jokes’ and people who see a meme recognize that. Internet meme have become a way to show messages and relate that to the picture. The expression that either a person, or an animal, or something we imagine, shows what they are thinking. This then be use to what the text is.

What are its points of reference (i.e. intertextuality, indexicality)?

The text does create meaning because on the reference to our society. The text is used as mockery of the  social platform, particularly women. The image is pastiche because the meme is used to mock society. “In conjunction with the character, Mr. Wonka is viewed as someone who likes to talk down to people, thus which is where his name “Condescending Wonka” comes from” (WordPress.com, 2012). The way Wonka patronizes what people do to what the superiority find as the norm makes memes a cultural tool.

The indexicality is how society interprets the meme. To me I found the meme funny. Another person might not like the meme because it can be disrespectful. Others might not understand the meme at all. The point of having interpretations is people can view it differently. That is why memes are important because no one can understand its true meaning.

How does the meme work as a cultural artifact?

Memes work as a cultural artifact because of the information it provides to a culture. It gives the people a way to reuse that artifact on any occasion. For example, the cultural artifact for the Condescending Wonka was from the movie Willy Wonka, where camera shots created a point in time where Wonka was seen as ‘condescending’ to other characters in the movie, and to the audience. Then it becomes a representation by the audience, which is being shown time and time again with the Condescending Wonka meme. Meme might be considered recycled slang, but it hold value based on what goes on in society.

 

Part 2

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How does your meme ‘work’?

The way I constructed this meme was to poke fun of the so called ‘Italian’ fans. Every world cup, the Italian fans come out, showing their pride for their team in the worst possible way. It amazes me how many people can ride on a country. Even though they are considered Italian, they can never experience the culture like the people who are from Italy. The text itself represents who Italian fans will likely cheer for, Mario Balotelli because he’s their best player and will help win for Italy. They may not know about him as a premier soccer player, but still cheer for him anyways.        

 Who/what is your audience?

My audience is specific because not all fans act this way. This meme targets fans who bandwagons on a team like Italy to show everyone that they are as Italian as anyone else by wearing their jerseys and memorabilia.

Does its interpretation require specialized knowledge?

The interpretation of this meme should not require specialized knowledge. There is no research that has to go into understanding what this meme means. The only way to understand this meme would be to know the history of how Italian fans show their appreciation. I have experienced these so called fans during every world cup since I can remember. These fans would show their appreciation of their team the same way. Either using facebook posts or tweets to showing off what they’re wearing.

What are its points of reference (i.e. intertextuality, indexicality)?

The text of this meme creates meaning towards a mockery towards the bandwagon fans of Italy. The way the text focuses on the being an ‘Italian’ fan provides humor for people who will understand what people go through when seeing these fans. The name ‘Balotelli’ points out that he is someone that every fan reference when they call themselves a ‘Italian’ fan.

The indexicality might not be clear in this particular meme because people might not understand the reference between Balotelli and Italy if they do not follow soccer. The picture does not show an Italy flag or fan in the picture, but the text tries to show the reference between the two.

Describe its templatability. Did you build on an existing meme? How does your meme connect to the other(s)? How does your meme differ?

This meme does build off of the existing Condescending Wonka. The reason I chose this particular meme because I always enjoyed the meme for reference. The connection to other memes is the text. I used the text from my previous example in part one as a way to structure my text around the Italian culture and their fans. It would also make the connection to something or someone that people can relate. The example from part 1 referenced Instagram. I knew I had to do the same with my example. Mario Balotelli seemed like the right person for the description of who these fans cheer for.

Although this meme is creative, it does not make it different. This meme is called a crisis meme and has been “criticized for not being reasoned discourse, reinforcing cultural divides and making use of copyrighted content without permission and in ways that the copyright holder may not wish”(Rintel, S.,2013). These meme does not carry any much discourse to them. It does make you think about whether or not these memes have any value to them.

How did you create your meme? Describe the process and the tools you used in its creation.

I followed the instructions provided by my professor. I used the first link, memegenerator.com and it brought me to their website. Then I picked out the specific meme I wanted as a picture. After coming up with many ideas on what I want to focus my meme around, I chose to focus on the World Cup, using Italy as a point of reference. The audience targeted bandwagon fans because I see them all the time. Phrasing the text revolved around the example from Part 1 of this assignment.

 

Reference

n.a (2012) Condescending Wonka: A brief analysis of the Internet Meme and its uses.

WordPress.com. Retrieved on June 14th, 2014 from http://butteryobread.wordpress.com/2012/03/14/condescending-wonka-an-brief-analysis-of-the-internet-meme-and-its-uses/

Rintel, S. (2012) Crisis memes: the importance of templatability to Internet culture and freedom

of expression.  The Australasian Journal of Popular culture.  Retrieved on June 16th, 2014 from http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Article,id=14669/